Thinking in the Active Voice

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This keynote presentation was delivered to the Expert Consultation on Guidelines on Poverty Reduction DAC/POVNET (OECD) in Callantsoog, Netherlands, September 12-14, 2000 by Brian Murphy, Inter Pares. In it, Brian provides a reflection on the concepts of "development" and "modernization", and the philosophies and ideologies which underpin them.
A slightly edited version of this paper appears in Negotiating Poverty, New Directions, Renewed Debate (eds. N. Middleton, P. O’Keefe and R. Visser), Pluto Books, London, 2001. Some formulations in the paper have been adapted from the essay "International NGOs and the Challenge of Modernity," by Brian K. Murphy, in Development in Practice, Volume 10, No 3 & 4, August 2000.


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